Unalloyed steel is the name given to all iron-carbon alloys, which have a carbon content of 0.05 up to a maximum of 2 %, and the maximum value specified for any of the following elements does not exceed a percent: manganese 1.65%, silicon 0.60%, copper 0.60%.
This type of steel is a composition of almost just iron. And because of its composition, this steel lends itself well to heat treatment, so most often various tools are made from it.
Such tool steel is also used for the manufacture of housings, nails, cutters, bolts, as well as other fasteners and cutting tools. Most often, this type of steel is produced in open-hearth furnaces, and unalloyed steel products can withstand temperatures up to 450 degrees Celsius.
Types of Unalloyed Steel
Unalloyed steel can be of the following types:
- For railway casting – arrows, rails, as well as other products for building railway tracks. Wheels, axles and all products with high reliability requirements;
- Steel 10895 – most often used for parts in magnetic circuits for electrical appliances. This is fairly ductile steel that can be processed while hot;
- Carbon unalloyed steel;
- High carbon steel;
- Medium carbon steel;
- Low carbon steel.
Carbon-containing steels are one of the most affordable in terms of price because their composition is very simple and does not require the use of any expensive ferroalloys.
Products and Uses
Unalloyed steel castings are used depending on the grade of steel – this can be:
- GS-45 – most often these are products that will subsequently be used under pressure or using high temperatures;
- GS-52 – products and spare parts that will be further used with vibration or under heavy loads;
- GS-60 – products that work in chain transmissions, for example, brake discs, but which are subject to increased requirements for strength, wear resistance under conditions of increased loads and vibration.
Features of unalloyed steel products
Each type of steel has its own characteristics and it is important to initially understand in what conditions the casting will be operated. This is the only way to create high-quality reliable casting that will meet all the requirements.
So, using this type of steel is one of the cheapest ways to produce castings, but at the same time its quality may well ensure the reliable operation of many elements. Each grade of unalloyed steel has its own mechanical features, which can be adjusted by regulating the amount of carbon in the composition.
If there is a small amount of carbon, the steel will be mild. And if you need solid hard steel in addition to increasing of carbon amount, cementation can be also used (the process of heat treatment of metal with high carbon content).